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A Wound is a crack or break in the skin that allows germs to enter and blood to escape.

Main types of wounds : C Contused - Bruise, bleeding under the skin.Gun
L Laceration - a jagged cut caused by barbed wire.
I  Incised - a straight cut caused by a knife.
P Puncture - deep wound caused by a nail.
S Special - e.g. gunshot or graze.
Three categories of bleeding:
Arterial: most serious from arteries. Bright Red and spurting.
Venous: comes from the veins. Dark red and flowing.
Capillary: least serious from capillaries. Mixture of reds and oozing.
Apply direct pressure, Raise and support the injured limb, cover wound with a sterile dressing, treat for shock and send to hospital.
Pressure Points:
A place which pressure can be placed to stop blood flowing to the entire limb e.g. arm. This can be used if direct pressure does not work. This is where an artery can be pressed against a bone to stop the blood flow beyond this point. They can be found in your arm and at the top of your leg.
This is a throb of blood that passes along your arteries with each beat of your heart. It can be felt where an artery passes over a bone close to the skin for eaxampe the radial pulse at the wrist. The pulse rate of an adult is between 60 - 80. The average pulse rate is 72. The average amount of blood an adult has is 6 litres
Injured BoyCirculation:
You can check circulation of a casualty by pressing their nail so it turns white. It should return back to red by the time you say capillary refill.
Crush Injuries:
If a casualty is trapped for more than 10 minutes you should leave them trapped as poisons have built up. If it is release it could cause kidney failure.
Signs & Symptoms of Blood Loss:
Face & Skin: pale cold and clammy.
Pulse: fast and weak (less blood so pulse is weak as harder to find. It is faster to make up for the blood loss)
Breathing: fast and shallow may gasp for air (Air Hunger)
Behaviour: May be restless, thirsty, faint, and dizzy.
A serious condition that occurs when the cardiovascular system is unable to supply enough blood flow to the body. It can be caused by a loss of fluids or heart problems.

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