Introduction to First Aid

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First Aid Bag

First Aid:
is the first help a casualty receives at the scene of an accident before a doctor or ambulance arrives.

Aims of First Aid: (3 P's) P - Preserve Life.
P - Prevent the condition worsening.
P - Promote Recovery.

Priorities When Treating Casualties: (4 B's)
Breathing Bleeding Burns and Breaks.
Always ensure that the airway is open and the casualty has a pulse and respiration's. Then treat major bleeding, burns come next, and then fractures. However an open fracture with severe bleeding comes under bleeding. If there is more than one causality, treat the most serious one first. Never ignore the quiet causalities, as they could be the most serious.
Body Substance Isolation:
Gloves should always be worn for your own safety and the safety of the casualty. They protect you from HIV and they also protect the causality from germs that could be on your hands. Other personal protective equipment should be used if applicable like face shields, eye-wear and aprons.
Getting Help: Telephone
Make sure you phone for an ambulance as soon as possible. You dial 999 or 112 and ask for an ambulance. You should tell your exact location, your telephone number, the number of causalities, whether you need another services e.g. Garda for a road accident or Fire Brigade if someone is trapped. Also tell them if you need special equipment like a cardiac ambulance or if someone is about to give birth.

Assess - Check for dangers. Make the area safe and find out the History of the situation.
Diagnose - Find out what's wrong with the causality by finding out their signs and symptoms and other external clues.
Treat - Treat the causalities in order of priority.
Dispose - Send the causality to the doctors, to the hospital or home with somebody responsible. Give them all the relevant information they may need.
Signs - are something you can see e.g. swelling.
Symptoms - are something the causality can feel e.g. nausea and pain.
This is the full story of how the accident occurred. It should include the patients past medical history, and medication they are on or any illness they are suffering from. Details about the causality should also be found early on in case they go unconscious.
External Clues:
These can be medication they have on them or warning bracelets that give detail about their medical History. The Medic Alert bracelets tell you how to treat them and who to contact. Medicine for conditions like diabetes or angina could also help you.
The most important person at the scene of an accident is the First Aider. You should never put yourself in danger to help someone else. An injured First Aider is no good. Never go into burning buildings, near high voltage electricity wires or into water. If you come across a car accident make sure the ignition is turned off and the hand brake is on. If the car or causality is in the middle of the road, use bystanders to stop traffic.

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